If you are advised to have an MRI or MRA by your doctor, you must determine if gadolinium will be utilized. Gadolinium is injected into the bloodstream to enhance the images. If you have kidney problems, gadolinium can cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). NSF is a debilitating, potentially fatal disease for which there is no cure. It causes a thickening of the skin, connective tissues, muscles and internal organs throughout the body. Gadolinium – based contrast agents (GBCAs) are produced by four (4) pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. 1. Bracco – GBCA Products: Multihance and ProHance 2. GE Healthcare – GBCA Product: Omniscan 3. Bayer Healthcare – GBCA Product: Magnenist 4. Mallinckrodt Inc. – GBCA Product: OptiMark My former employer in litigation, Howard L. Nations, Esq. of Houston, Texas is a leading litigator on these issues and other pharmaceuticals. For more detailed information, go to his website, www.howardnations.com and click on pharmaceuticals.